Ci dessous vous pouvez trouver un extrait d'une série de questions/réponses publié par la Commission européenne en rapport à la révision de la Directive sur le soufre.
Questions and Answers on the Commission proposal on sulphur emissions from maritime transport
Why is the Commission proposing to change the legislation on marine fuels?
There are several reasons for the proposed changes.
Measures to reduce maritime emissions are timely and necessary. A reduction of emissions from shipping is now more cost-effective than further efforts to reduce land-based sources.
Secondly, the IMO recently adopted new standards for the sulphur content of marine fuels. As a result, the EU legislation needs to be revised to reflect these new requirements.
Finally, the European Parliament and the Council requested the Commission to carry out a review on the implementation of the Directive on the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels.
What changes is the Commission proposing?
The key elements of the revision are as follows:
The Directive will be aligned with the latest provisions adopted by the IMO on the sulphur content of marine fuels. As a result, the maximum permissible sulphur content of maritime fuels used in SECAs will fall from the previous level of 1.5 % to 0.1 %, as of 1 January 2015. These areas are currently the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. Other areas are to reduce their sulphur emissions from 4.5 % down to 0.5 % by 1 January 2020.
The Directive will be adapted to the IMO provisions on alternative compliance methods such as exhaust gas cleaning systems.
What will be the effects of the proposal for European citizens?
The costs induced by the proposed legislation stem mainly from an increase of the price of marine fuels. Since transport by ship accounts on average for less than 1% of the retail price of a consumer product, the impact on consumer products is considered to be negligible. The price for shipping services such as ferries is however likely to increase.
Does the proposed legislation transpose these international rules from IMO or does it go beyond them?
The Commission proposal however also includes additional adjustments, notably stricter sulphur standards for passenger ships on regular service in sea areas not designated as SECAs (including the Mediterranean Sea) and stronger rules on monitoring and enforcement of the rules on sulphur standards.
Why are some of the EU sea areas designated as SECAs and others not?
The reasons for this discrepancy result from the different sensitivities of these sea areas to pollution. The coastal states of this area therefore submitted a request to the IMO to designate these areas as SECAs and this designation was transposed into EU legislation.
Will the proposed legislation move the transport of goods from sea to land?
Several studies have assessed the effect of the increased fuel price with regard to the total transport costs and the consequence for potential shifts between sea- and land-based transport. A study initiated by the Commission suggests changes in the low percent range (1-7%). While there is no doubt that transport pattern in SECAs will change, no clear indication of the nature of the changes have emerged from the study. The impact of the new provisions will vary according to the specific route taken, the ship and cargo type, the length of sea segment and the extent to which ship operators can pass on increased fuel prices to customers.
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